5 Magic Numbers Every Dieter Needs to Know

Does this sound familiar? You’ve been watching yourself all week (avoiding junk, skipping seconds) and still, your weight is exactly the same as it was a week ago-or worse, even inched up a pound or two. It’s hard to remember that weight loss is a long-term process, you’ve got to stay patient. But I’ve learned that focusing on just your weight can sabotage your motivation. So instead here are five other numbers to think about. Keep track of these and your overall health (as well as your weight) ought to improve.

1. Waist circumference

By now, you’ve probably heard enough experts blast BMI (body mass index, or a ratio of your weight to your height), saying it’s not a good measure of body fat and health. Instead, you should know how many inches your waist measures. That’s because the fat that accumulates around your middle is linked to a host of health problems, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and even death. One 2010 study examined more than 100,000 Americans age 50 and older and found that people with the biggest waist size had about twice the risk of dying as the slimmest.

Numbers to know: Aim for less than 35 inches for women and 40 for men.

2. Daily calorie requirement

Our health books editor loves to point out the one thing most successful weight-loss programs have in common: They cut calories. Why? Chances are you consume way more than you realize or need.

Number to know: Most not-too-active middle aged women should consume around 1,600 calories a day to lose weight; men should consume 2,000 to 2,200. Try Mayo Clinic’s calorie calculator tool for a personalized guesstimate that takes age, activity levels, and other factors into account.

3. Daily fiber intake

You probably scan food labels for calorie and fat content. But if I asked you how much fiber you’re eating each day, I bet you wouldn’t know (and it’s probably half of what you should get). The big deal about fiber and weight loss is that it takes your body a long time to digest it compared to other nutrients. This tamps down hunger cravings and prevents blood sugar spikes. You know how can feel voracious an hour after eating a jumbo plain bagel? That’s probably because your meal had no fiber.

Number to know: Many experts recommend 25 to 35 grams a day (a medium apple and a cup of oatmeal each have four, for example); some would love to see us eating even more. Most adults get about 15 grams a day. If you’re pretty low on the fiber intake, add it slowly to avoid feeling bloated.

4. How much you sleep

Sleep helps the body regulate complex hormonal processes that affect our appetite, cravings, and weight. There’s now ample research that shows people who get less sleep are more likely to be overweight and munch on junk food than those who get more. Skimping on sleep may sabotage your diet as much as the Snickers calling your name from the office candy bowl.

Number to know: If you’re consistently getting six hours or less, your sleep habits may be tampering with your weight-loss goals. Most adults need seven to eight hours a night. A good clue you’re getting enough: not needing an alarm clock to wake up.

5. How many steps you take each day

More and more research shows it’s not the hour we spend sweating it out in the gym that counts, but all the incremental activity that adds up over the course of the day from things like taking the stairs, walking over to a colleague’s desk instead of emailing, or standing and pacing while you chat on the phone. Sitting down is bad for your body and your metabolism-our hunter-gatherer ancestors were constantly on the move, and so we’ve evolved not to sit still for hours on end.

The Root Canal Procedure Explained

The root canal procedure is recommended by the dentists for saving badly damaged or infected teeth. The root canal procedure prevents the removal of teeth. Apparently, no one will be interested in losing their teeth. Getting a suitable replacement is very costly. When carrying out the root canal procedure, the dentists will target affected tissues. The tissues are commonly referred to as the pulp in dentistry. The dentists will remove all of the infected pulp. After removing it, they will clean the canal and disinfect it. The space that was once covered by the pulp will be filled with filling materials before it is sealed. The name root canal originated from the cleaning of the canals.

What results in pulp infection is a cracked tooth and deep cavity. The cracks and cavity make it possible for bacteria to reach the nerve area. Repeating the same treatment on a particular tooth can affect the pulp. Urgent treatment of the tooth is vital. That will prevent it from spreading to other teeth. That would be a serious dental problem. With the aid of competent dentists, patients can be assured of safe procedures.

What to expect during root canal procedures

Do not opt for root canal treatment without consulting the dentist. The dental experts must examine the affected tooth. Their findings will determine whether you should obtain the treatment or not. Listed below are the steps performed by the dentist during the procedure.

X-Ray – The first step is getting an X-Ray of the infected part. The purpose of the X-Ray is to show the exact part of the tooth that is affected. It is impossible to detect the decay with normal eyes. The image will reveal the extent of the decay. Using the image, the dentist will know the exact way to remove the decay.

Anesthesia – The procedure cannot be done without local anesthesia. That is because it is very painful. The local anesthesia is injected into the infected tooth. That will make the tooth to become numb. The procedure will, therefore, be less painful. It is advisable to discuss with the dentist on the appropriate anesthesia. Get information regarding the types of anesthesia before picking the best one.

Pulpectomy-The dentist would need an opening to reach the pulp. Pulpectomy is the process of creating an opening. Via the opening, the infected pulp will be removed. Cleaning and disinfection will be done via the same opening.

Filling-After cleaning, the space left by the removed pulp needs to be filled. The dentists use the gutta-percha material to fill the space. Unlike the removed pulp, the filling material is not a living tissue. That is why teeth are dead after this procedure. After filling, the opening is sealed with cement.

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Leukemia Through Cord Blood Treatment

We all seem to be aware of the deadly effects of leukemia, especially in infants. The prevalence of the disease interferes with every sphere of our daily lives and activities. A combination of chemotherapy and stem cell transplant can find us relief though; they expose us to minor to severe side effects, including graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), coupled with some complaints of toxicities as well. However, a recent research from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center had confirmed that treatment with umbilical cord blood transplant offers a better survival outcome, without any need of a traditional donor match. So, all the leukemia patients need not to queue in the line for years to find a matched donor for their stem cell transplants.

Nor does the umbilical cord blood treatment offer better curative possibilities for patients with leukemia; it alleviates the chronic conditions associated with Myelodysplastic syndrome and other bone marrow disorders as well.

How Cord Blood Treatment Raises Hopes for Us Suffering from Leukemia

A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center highlighted the benefits of cord blood treatments. And it is established that in patients with “minimal residual disorder” could not benefit from the transplant as the chemotherapy does not put cancer cells into remission, while patients with detectable cancer could remain alive for three years after the transplant.

The research focused on the successful treatment options of the cord blood therapy, which improved the conditions of patients with detectable cancer cells, with less traces of relapse complexities.

Conversely, patients with minimal residual disorder who underwent the transplant using adult and unmatched donor cells faced very poor outcomes.

For bone marrow cell transplant, patients with matching donor can receive a higher chance of transplant. At the same time, transplants with mismatched donor cells could be effective, but they do not occur more often. However, the cord blood transplant does not advocate for a matched donor for the successful treatment or transplant.

Hence, you are more likely to receive a range of great advantages from a cord blood transplant as opposed to bone marrow stem cells.

Every one of us has a greater access to the cord blood donors. And that’s the reason why cord blood transplant can be made available to more populations as compared to the adult or allogeneic stem cells.

Adult stem cells work in sync with Human Leukocyte Antigen or HLA genes in our body to confirm the likelihood of acceptance or rejection of donor stem cells. Since, umbilical cord blood cells are not as developed or matured as adult stem cells, they do not require following the unique genetic background rules to match HLA. And hence, the doctors and clinicians can collect stem cells quicker and can initiate the treatment faster than stem cell therapies.

The transplant using stem cells is less likely to be dependent on the matched donor, while the mismatched donor is accepted and effective for the curative treatment of this deadly disease.

And hence, an easier accessibility and availability ensures that none of us will remain deprived of the better cancer treatment options, and receive a successful transplant every time.

So, the effective treatment possibilities with stem cells cannot be regarded as an alternative donor. In another way, if you have chances of developing the relapse risks, cord blood transplant is the safest and best choice for you.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/9904823

Dislocations – When There Is No Doctor

The bones that form a joint are normally congruous and in apposition to each other. When this relationship is altered due to injury, it leads to a separation of these bones, called a dislocation.

What you shouldn’t do is as important as what you should when someone has suffered a dislocation. Let’s discuss how to recognize when bones have gone astray, and the correct way to handle such an emergency.

A fracture is often mistaken for a dislocation especially if it occurs near a joint, such as the upper end of the thighbone (femur) which is near the hip joint, or the upper end of the arm bone (humerus) which is near the shoulder joint. What distinguishes the two is that a fracture is a break in the continuity of any one bone.

The elderly are more susceptible to dislocations because, with age, the muscles and ligaments that form the support system around the joints lose their tone, weakening their hold over the joints.

Other susceptible groups, especially for shoulder dislocation, are those involved in active sports like gymnastics and cricket (bowling and fielding).

SHOULDER DISLOCATION

This is the commonest site of dislocation because the socket of the shoulder joint is shallow compared to the other ball-and-socket joint – the hip, which is deeper and hence more stable. The cause is usually an injury, typically when, during a fall, the person lands on his outstretched hand (thus throwing his entire body weight on it) and the rest of his body is thrown backwards.

Symptoms:

  • When the two shoulders are compared, the affected one will appear flatter (the normal shoulder has a rounded outline) because the ball has shifted out its place.
  • There will be pain and swelling around the area, and the person will be unable to move the affected arm.

First Aid:

DO NOT

  • attempt to click the joint into place, especially if you are not trained in this, and the dislocation has occurred for the first time. In fact, do not even move the arm; let the person hold it in the position he finds most comfortable.
  • give anything by way of mouth, including a pain-killer (even if the person is yelling for it), in case anaesthesia is to be later administered at the hospital.

WHAT TO DO:

Your priority should be to transport the person to a hospital urgently. Sometimes if the circumflex nerve at the shoulder joint is injured, it could lead to paralysis of the deltoid muscles (of the shoulder), leading to an inability to raise the arm.

If time permits (while transport is being arranged) the affected hand could be supported by a cuff-and-collar sling, i.e. a bandage gauze going around the neck and the wrist, or by a triangular sling.

(At the hospital after an x-ray is taken, the bone will be set into position, very often under general anaesthesia.)

Recurrent dislocations of the shoulder, in which the shoulder keeps getting dislocated as a result of trivial injury or even an action which involves raising the arm above the shoulder are common. The reason is a tear in the tissue surrounding the joint which becomes a weak area through which the bone comes out easily.

As the frequency of such dislocations increases, the pain reduces to the point, where the person learns to click hi shoulder back into place without much ado.

HIP DISLOCATIONS

The hip joint has a deeper socket compared to the shoulder joint and has the body’s strongest ligaments surrounding it, which is why it is inherently a very stable joint. But it may dislocate as a result of a high-velocity vehicular accident. If a person sits in the front seat of a vehicle with his legs crossed at the knee, when the dashboard hits against the knee, the force is transmitted from the knee along the thighbone to the hip joint which usually dislocates the hip joint.

Symptoms:

  • Severe pain in the area; the person will not be able to stand on the affected leg.
  • The leg will appear flexed (bent) at the knee and hip.
  • The limb may also appear shortened.

First Aid:

DO NOT:

  • attempt to click the joint into place or to move the leg in any way.
  • give the person anything to eat or drink in case he is required to be given anaesthesia later.

WHAT TO DO:

Immediately arrange to transport the person, lying on his back and preferably in an ambulance. If treatment is delayed and the surrounding blood vessels are disrupted, the blood supply to the ball of the hip joint may be permanently cut off, leading to early wear-and-tear of the hip joint and arthritis of the hip. If the dislocation is associated with an injury to the sciatic nerve which is in close proximity to the hip it could lead to a paralysis of the foot muscles or a foot-drop. (At the hospital, under general anaesthesia, the hip will be manipulated into position or surgery may be required.)

Usually a hip dislocation is non-recurrent except in the case of an associated fracture of the socket. (In this case, to prevent re-dislocation, the fractured socket has to be reconstructed by surgery.)

SPINAL DISLOCATIONS

As a result of injury, the spine could dislocate either at the cervix (back of the neck) or in the dorso-lumbar area (the junction of the middle and lower back). It may or may not be associated with neurological deficit (paralysis).

Symptoms:

  • Severe pain in the area.
  • If there is paralysis, there may be reduced sensation or a lack of sensation below the point of injury.
  • If the body is paralysed below the level of injury there will be a loss of bladder and bowel movement.

First Aid:

DO NOT

  • delay transportation in any way.
  • impart any movement to the spine.

WHAT TO DO

As soon as possible, rush the person to the hospital in the position that he is lying, as a change of position could worsen his condition. In the event of paralysis below the point of injury, early treatment plays a crucial role in ultimate recovery.

OTHER DISLOCATIONS

Other superficial dislocations include those of the elbow joint, finger joints and ankle joints.

Symptoms:

Pain, swelling and an inability to move the affected joints.

First Aid:

DO NOT

  • attempt to click the joint into place, however easy it may seem, as an injury to a nearby nerve or blood vessel during the process could bring on long-lasting complications or could produce a fracture of a nearby bone which was not initially present.

WHAT TO DO

The elbow joint may be placed in a triangular sling to provide support to it till the person can be taken to hospital.

In case of an ankle dislocation, the victim should not be made to walk or to exert any pressure on the affected leg. He should be carried to the transport and, later, from the vehicle to the hospital.

Finger joint dislocations may appear minor but they too need the attention of an orthopaedic surgeon who will usually click them into place under local anaesthesia. However, if there are complications involved, surgery may be required.

How to Make Your Child Friends With the Floss

The most important thing for the health of our teeth is their proper hygiene and a regular check ups with the family dentist. These habits are formed in our childhood, and our parents are responsible for that. Their example plays an important role in our awareness of the proper healthcare necessity. When we become parents too, it is essential to teach our children to care about their teeth properly.

Among the well known rule about two minutes of teeth brushing, it is also important to clean the areas that are hard to reach with a toothbrush. Floss copes with this task quite successfully. However, many parents ignore teaching their children how to floss their teeth. This mistake may cost them their healthy teeth in future.

At the beginning, children are not very fond of flosses. This often makes their parents give up the idea of maintaining a habit to floss their teeth. But the future health of your children’s teeth is worth a little more patience and persistence. The specialists at Broadway Family Dental clinic will help you to get your child acquainted with flossing using these small tips.

  1. The earlier you show your children a floss and show how to use it, the earlier they will learn. They will remember it as an essential attribute of the oral hygiene.
  2. Show your child visual proofs that floss is necessary. Children perceive everything better with visual explanations. Show them the pictures of teeth damaged by decay and explain that it happens because of poor hygiene. This will help them understand the sense of flossing teeth.
  3. Choose the most convenient variant for a child’s small hands. Consult your pediatric dentist for choosing the best option together. The convenience of usage is a very important factor when you teach your children anything.
  4. Let a child choose the device. This will show your respect and serious treatment. A child will be proud to floss their teeth with the floss their parents let him or her to choose “like adults do”.
  5. Be a good example yourself. Everything you do, good or bad, your children take as an example, may you want it or not. So try to be the best one, and this concerns not only teeth flossing.

Frequently Asked Questions About Bat Diseases

Zoonotic viruses are those than can pass from one animal to another, and bats are known hosts to more than 60 of them. Furthermore, they are carriers of several other infectious viruses, bacteria, and parasites. However, just because a bat is a host does not mean they are infected, or even contagious. Continue reading to learn more about transmissible bat diseases, including the answers to some of the most frequently asked questions asked by readers just like you.

Which Diseases Can Bats Carry and Transmit?

Bats are most known for being carriers of the Rabies virus. It is also possible for bats to carry the SARS virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome), however, it is rare, and the transmission from bat to human is even rarer. Other than zoonotic viruses, bats can also cause additional health concerns. Their droppings (also known as guano) can grow fungi spores (Histoplasma Capsulatum) that become airborne. If inhaled, it can cause a respiratory illness known as Histoplasmosis, which can be incredibly severe for young children, elderly folks, and those with weakened immune systems. Bats can also cause parasitic outbreaks, including lice, bat mites, bed bugs, and fleas.

What Happens if a Person Gets Rabies?

When a human has contracted rabies, they will start to display particular signs, in which case they will need to go to the emergency room immediately. These signs will appear similar to the flu or common cold, with symptoms like headache and fever. As the virus progresses, other signs such as dizziness, rage, and confusion. The incubation period for rabies in the average person is about five to seven days. All cases of rabies in humans were fatal until the vaccine was invented in the early 1900’s. Now, if a person is ever infected with Rabies, he or she can go to the emergency room and receive effective treatment to stop the virus from multiplying.

Can Pets Get Infected?

All of these illnesses and parasites can all be transmitted to both people and pets. It is important to have your pet properly vaccinated every year to prevent complications or fatalities that result from a wild animal attack or bite. Common pet vaccines include: Rabies, Leptospirosis, Bordetella, Distemper, Parvovirus, Adenovirus, and Parainfluenza. Vaccinations are important for humans as well, especially children and those with weakened immune systems.

How Do Bats Transmit Diseases?

The most common means of bacterial or viral transmission is through blood or saliva. This often occurs in the form of a bat bite or scratch. In most cases, a person bitten by a bat will be instructed to immediately seek medical attention. In the case that you or a loved one is bitten by a wild animal, it is important to call your doctor immediately. Depending on the description of the bat and the boosters you have one file, your doctor will determine whether or not you need emergency services. If a pet is bitten, take them to the emergency vert clinic right away.

Which Diseases Only Affect Bats?

There are some diseases that can affect bats, but cannot be transmitted to other mammals. The most common disease is called White Nose Syndrome (WNS). It gets its name from the distinctive symptoms it renders in bats, namely a white fungal growth on their noses, muzzles, and other areas of the body. Geomyces destructans is a newly-discovered fungus that is suspected to cause White Nose Syndrome in bats. Bats infected with White Nose Syndrome will show strange signs and exhibit odd behaviors. This includes daytime activity and clustering near the entry points of their roost. In North America, this disease is spreading quickly among Microchiroptera populations, and has caused millions of bat fatalities.

Scientists Claim First CRISPR Editing of Human Embryos in the USA

With CRISPR technology editing the DNA code of human embryo, can we hold our breath for an absolute eradication of inherited disorders like Thalassemia and similar conditions? The answer is still unclear as there is no such publication about the claims on decoding the DNA with CRISP editing technology. As per the MIT Technology Review, the research team led by Shoukhrat Mitalipov at Oregon Health and Science University has been successful in an effort to edit the genes of human embryo using CRISPR editing technology for the first time.

Gene editing has been a controversial practice, but still we had earlier seen three such efforts involving human embryo editing in China.

You can call it genetically modified human embryos or improved embryos sans defective cells with mutations responsible for inherited diseases. Even if DNA editing is controversial, it contributes to the elimination of hereditary illnesses.

Advantages of CRISPR Editing Technology

The genetic manipulation using the CRISPR editing technology in the human embryos seems viable and an effective way to remove defects from the genes, and combat thousands of diseases. The technology uses molecular scissors to influence the performance of the gene sequencing. And as a result, it can eliminate the undesirable components from it. Hence, it paves the way for the replacement of new and improved DNA with the faulty genes.

The claim also raises hopes for families with concerns for the genetic diseases, as it is capable of preventing the further spread of the deadly disorders like malaria in the body.

There is another way for which the finding holds a true and promising possibility for our future generation as well. By editing the gene sequencing in the human embryos, we can expect the “human germline editing”. This means when the editing technology will instill embryos of offspring with new mutated cells, the characteristics and features of the edited DNAs will be carried through offspring after offspring. So, the germline gets fixed permanently in each successive generation and follows a hereditary pattern of a family.

With the new CRISPR editing technology, we have no more editing errors known as “mosaicism” as was the case with earlier Chinese experiments. And the desired improvement technique is thought to be followed not only by some, but all the cells in the embryo.

Contradictory Opinion about The Claims

Some critics argue that we absolutely do not need such technology to detect deformities in human embryos and correct them with CRISPR editing technology. That’s because the efficacy of the technology is deemed unfit as it is unable to perform as expected if two copies of defective genes are present in the embryos.

On the other hand, we already have preimplantation diagnosis technology or OPD to detect disease causing cells in the embryos. And by using this technique, the faulty genes can be replaced through in vitro fertilization.

Disadvantages

The techniques seem to violate the rule of natures as it advocates for the creation of the designer babies. Rather than editing the disease causing genes, the technique is more likely to foster the enhancement techniques, meaning future parents would seek editing techniques to remove imperfections in their children. And we fear that this approach would lead to a genetic discrimination.

However, if the claims are true, we can free ourselves from a range of diseases, including anemia, Huntington’s disease and other genetic diseases through gene modifications. So, let’s keep our fingers crossed for a true future possibility.

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