What Are the Different Diseases Which Come Under Neurosurgery?

Brain and spinal cord are the two most important parts of the nervous system. It acts as a relay. It transmits information to different parts of the body. The actions taken by the body is because of the information given by the nervous system. This system is divided into two sub categories – central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Together, they make sure our body is working fine. Some diseases prevent this system from working in a normal manner. The branch of medicine which deals with the conditions and diseases of the nervous system is known as neurology. When the treatment requires surgical intervention, then neurosurgery comes into play.

Following explained are the conditions which are dealt by a neurosurgeon

• Brain Tumor

It is the condition in which abnormal cells from within the brain. They can either start in the brain or at other places and travel to the brain. A malignant tumor is cancerous whereas a benign one of non cancerous. The rate at which it grows depends on the extent of the tumor. This growth determines the function of the tumor.

Some of the types of tumor are glioma, meningioma, brain metastases etc. These occur when there is error in DNA mutation. It is identified with the help of symptoms such as onset of headache, nausea, vomiting, vision problem, seizures etc.

• Epilepsy

It is a group of neurological disorders in which there is abnormal brain activity leading to seizures. There is a random period of unusual behavior which causes sensation and loss of awareness. The symptoms which are observed by the patients can be of different intensity. Some people twitch their arms while some of them can stare at a blank space.

You should consult a doctor when they last for more than five minutes and after it has stopped, there is no return of consciousness. It is linked to various factors such as genes, head injury, brain conditions etc.

• Pituitary Tumor

Tumors that begin in the pituitary gland are known as pituitary tumor. Most of them are non cancerous and don’t spread to other parts of the body. They cause glands to produce lower levels of hormones. There may not be symptoms in each and every case. Some of the symptoms which are associated with these tumors are headache, vision loss, feeling cold etc.

Some of the common treatment options are as follows

• Brain Tumor Surgery

It is an operation to remove tumor from the brain. Surgery depends on the type and grade of the tumor. It is the first treatment which is recommended by the doctor. There are different surgical options. In cortical mapping, areas of the brain which control the senses and language, are identified. If the skull needs to be opened, then craniotomy is the way to go. You are first given anesthesia and then incisions are made in the scalp to remove as much tumor as possible.

• Epilepsy Surgery

It is a surgical procedure given to control seizures. The main aim of this surgery is to remove the particular part of the brain which causes seizures. In vagus nerve stimulation, a device is placed under skin which lowers the onset of seizure by giving an electrical jolt. Temporal lobe epilepsy is treated by cutting away the area of the brain tissue which is affected. Focus of the seizure is removed in this method.

• Deep Brain Stimulation

It is a surgical procedure which is mostly done for Parkinson’s disease, OCD and Dystonia. Electrodes are implanted in certain specific areas of the brain. They produce electrical impulses that regulate abnormal impulses. The impulses given are controlled by a device which looks like a pacemaker. There may be some side effects after the surgery such as seizure, infection, headache, stoke, temporary pain at the site of implantation etc.

Zika Virus – Symptoms, Prevention & the World’s Thought

International Recommendation:

New Zealand and world health authorities are continuing to monitor the spread of Zika virus. There is ongoing research about how it can affect infected people.

On 1 February 2016 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). This is because of the concerns around birth defects and other neurological disorders, and the possible link to Zika virus infections. The WHO recommended:

  • Increased monitoring of the virus
  • Increased information and education about it and promotion of mosquito control.

New Zealand and international health authorities are still investigating the connection between Zika virus and the reports of birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes.


Most people who get infected with the Zika virus do not show any symptoms. Only one in five people who get it will feel sick. The symptoms appear 3-12 days after getting the infection. The most common symptoms of Zika virus disease are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis. The illness is usually mild with the symptoms lasting a week. There is no vaccine for Zika virus disease. Those who do feel sick experience symptoms that may include:

  • Low-grade fever (between 37. 8°C and 38. 5°C)
  • Joint pain, especially the small joints of your hands and feet, with possible swollen joints
  • Muscle pain
  • Headache
  • Red eyes
  • Flat, red rash with small bumps
  • Feeling weak and tired.

Rare symptoms include digestive problems (abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation), small ulcers in the mouth or on the tongue, and itching


There is no specific treatment for Zika virus infection, and if symptoms develop these will typically clear up within 4-7 days. Zika infection may cause a rash that could be confused with other serious diseases such as measles or dengue, so it’s important that you check with a health care professional so that they can rule out these diseases. Until dengue fever can be ruled out, do not take aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen, as there is a risk of bleeding. Use paracetamol for pain and fever if needed. Get plenty of rest and fluids, and treat the symptoms that you have. Zika virus is spread by mosquitoes that are active during the day. The best way to prevent diseases spread by mosquitoes is to avoid being bitten.


Zika is spreading to many tropical and sub-tropical countries. According to the information available, including the cases reported in New Zealand, the three Pacific states where Zika virus infections are currently occurring are Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga. This list will be updated as the situation changes. We recommend that if you’re travelling to any of the Pacific Island countries, you should always take precautions to avoid mosquito bites.

Anyone who travels to an affected area should protect themselves from mosquito bites.

  • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
  • Use insect repellents containing DEET, oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE), or IR3535. Always use as directed.
  • If you use both sunscreen and insect repellent, apply the sunscreen first and then the repellent.
  • Use clothing and gear such as boots, pants, socks, and tents
  • Use bed nets to cover your sleeping area.
  • Stay and sleep in screened-in or air-conditioned rooms.
  • If you’re sleeping in a tent, use a zip-up screen.

Until we know more, the international organization like WHO, recommends that women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant in the near future should consider delaying travel to the areas mentioned above. See your healthcare provider if you are pregnant and develop a fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes within three weeks after travelling to a country where Zika virus infections are occurring. Be sure to tell your provider everywhere you traveled.

If you do travel to an area where Zika virus infections are occurring, and you plan to become pregnant after you travel, you should consider waiting to conceive until three weeks after you have left the area.

There is no vaccine for Zika virus disease. All sectors that can assist should be engaged, and the public informed of the risks and preventive measures against Zika virus disease. People can protect themselves against mosquito bites by using insect repellent, wearing clothes that cover as much of the body as possible, and using physical barriers such as screens, closed doors and wind


All sectors that can assist should be engaged, and the public informed of the risks and preventive measures against Zika virus disease. People can protect themselves against mosquito bites by using insect repellent, wearing clothes that cover as much of the body as possible, and using physical barriers such as screens, closed doors and windows. Everyone should help prevent breeding of mosquitoes by emptying containers that hold standing water in and around their houses.

What Are The Signs Of Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome?

This condition is known by many different names, which contribute to some of the confusion that this illness causes when you try to learn more about it.

CFS is how it is most commonly referred to, which is short for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, as well as being known by the names of M.E. and Post-Viral Fatigue syndrome.

Since there is still no official test for Chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome, your medical practitioner will first have to rule out the many other conditions that can cause similar symptoms, like anemia, before they can diagnose you with CFS

The signs and symptoms of chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome vary from person to person, which makes it a bit more difficult to diagnose, even though most doctors are now better educated about and aware of the condition than in the past.

Most people who experience the most common symptom of fatigue initially put it down to just “being run down” or having a dose of the flu, as the symptoms are similar to both.

But what is distinct with CFIDS is that this is not just a case of being tired from a bout of insomnia, or just feeling sleepy. Instead this is a total lack of energy, which can go on for years, chronically feeling totally wiped out like when you are bedridden with a bad case of influenza, every day you wake up to start the day.

Most doctors will require this state of fatigue to have been ongoing for at least 6 months duration before it is counted as a true symptom.

Another symptom is the after effect that you experience when you have pushed yourself too far physically, doing more than your body could handle.

This is common for people with CFS to experience, because as soon as you have a ‘good day’ of reduced fatigue there is a tendency to rush about and try to catch up on all the chores and tasks that have been left undone.

While you may feel able to cope at the time of the activity, once you are done the effect of overexertion hits and you experience old fashioned malaise, where you simply can’t get out of bed or take any of the actions most people take for granted every day.

The next most debilitating symptom of CFIDS is a state of mental confusion and lack of ability to focus on anything for very long, often referred to as “brain fog” by people who experience it.

This is the symptom that affects people even when they are not in physically demanding jobs, if their work requires concentration for long periods and needs them to stay focused on multiple tasks at one time, they will often find themselves unable to keep their jobs for long.

There are other less obvious or signs and symptoms of CFIDS which include:

  • Experiencing sleep disorders, maybe sleeping less because of disruptions, or sleeping more because you cannot get out of bed with any energy.
  • Muscles can ache and your joints can become painful, for no reason, even without extra exertion to cause it
  • You may begin to experience headaches unlike ones you have experienced before.
  • Increased sensitivity to stimulants like light, noise or smells, that never used to cause you discomfort.
  • It is very common that you begin to develop a sore throat, even a dry cough at times, and swellings/sensitivity in your lymph nodes.
  • More than usual Depression and increased stress can be experienced, but is often a side effect of your exhaustion.
  • You may experience heightened anxiety levels, and fears about your ability to recover from this state of malaise.

These most common symptoms and signs of chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome may however also be an indication of other diseases, so you cannot self-diagnose yourself with CFS.

Only your doctor or specialist in the CFIDS field can conduct the tests to eliminate other diseases (some of which could be life threatening) so that you have a clear diagnosis to being treatment from.

The good news is that more and more medical practitioners are now better informed about this illness and more likely to correctly identify the condition than they were even 10 years ago.

Reasons Why Even Healthy People Should Go for Routine Blood Tests

People these days are becoming increasingly health conscious. From customized services offered by doctors to nutrition tracking apps, your good health is now in your own hands. However, blood tests are a totally different ball game altogether.

Blood tests have often been associated with a reactive approach. It is only when you notice symptoms is when you go for a test. However, have you ever realized that by taking routine blood tests there are so many diseases or infections you can fix at the onset or even avoid?

Here are some of the reasons why you should consider regular blood tests, even if you are healthy.

  • Why wait for the symptoms to show up?
    Is it not better to know as early as possible if a disease is brewing in your system? Most chronic risks can be detected through blood tests, so why wait for things to go horribly wrong? Think of all the pain and discomfort you can avoid by being proactive about it. Most blood test types will tell you how your regular lifestyle such as eating habits, exercise, diet etc. is impacting your well-being. By knowing what is wrong, you will be able to take corrective measures while you still can.
  • Don’t assess your health by how you feel
    When the question is about health, the answer should be absolute. Never trust how you look and feel when it comes to evaluating your fitness or general well-being. You need to know exactly how your body is on the inside. Believe it or not, as many as 40% people who are non-obese are suffering from cardiovascular diseases or diabetes.
  • Eliminate the guesswork
    If you have noticed an unreasonable amount of weight gain, don’t just blame it on eating recklessly. Something more sinister may be at play inside your body. You may be experiencing high levels of cortisol that is associated with weight gain and cortisol levels are a sign of stress. You may be addressing a whole different problem by not knowing exactly what is wrong. Without a blood test, you will be fixing the wrong errors, leaving yourself exposed to the risk irrespective of your efforts.
    Routine blood tests allow you to detect not just infections and diseases but also deficiencies. If your body has lack of vitamins and minerals, it can affect the healthy functioning of your body. When certain mineral and vitamin quantities are lower than required, they can cause issues like a headache, muscle cramps, insomnia, fatigue, constipation etc. A lot of these problems can be avoided completely by knowing what is amiss. Which micronutrients are deficient in your body will help you change your diet accordingly.
  • One size does not fit all
    We are all made up of different biochemistry. You and your sibling cannot follow the same nutrition guideline. Since our bodies are different, our approach to our health should also be specific to our body needs. A blood test determines how you should tweak your lifestyle to best meet the needs of your body.

What Is Zika? How to Avoid It

The Zika infection, first distinguished in Uganda in 1947, is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, a similar sort of mosquito that conveys dengue fever, yellow fever, and chikungunya infection. A mosquito nibbles a tainted individual and after that passes those infections to other individuals it chomps. Episodes did not happen outside of Africa until 2007, when it spread toward the South Pacific.

The CDC has affirmed Zika can spread through sex, ordinarily after a man headed out to a territory where Zika has broken out, got the infection, and gave the infection to a sex accomplice who did not travel. Contaminated ladies and men can both pass the infection to sex accomplices – regardless of whether they haven’t indicated side effects of disease, the CDC says. Moreover, contaminated pregnant ladies can pass the infection on to their hatchling.

A few examinations have likewise demonstrated the infection can be found in blood, semen, pee, and spit of tainted individuals, and in addition in liquids in the eye.

In Utah, a man got the infection without voyaging or having sexual contact. The individual was a relative and parental figure of an elderly Zika understanding who passed on in late June – the main Zika-connected demise in the U.S. The perished man had made a trip to a territory where Zika is spreading, and lab tests indicated high measures of the infection in his blood – in excess of 100,000 times higher than that seen in different examples of contaminated individuals, the CDC says. He likewise had a fundamental therapeutic condition that has not been unveiled.

Wellbeing authorities trust the guardian got Zika by interacting with the more seasoned man’s tears and sweat.

What Are the Symptoms of Zika?

The malady can cause fever, rash, joint agony, and redness in the whites of the eye (conjunctivitis, or pink eye). Be that as it may, a great many people won’t know they have it.

“Just around 1 out of 5 individuals with the infection will display side effects,” says Adalja. “Most by far have no side effects by any stretch of the imagination.”

Side effects can show up somewhere in the range of 3 to 14 days after a chomp from a contaminated mosquito, as per the CDC. They can last from a few days to about seven days.

Call your specialist in the event that you create manifestations and you live in or have gone by a region where Zika is spreading, the CDC says – particularly in the event that you are pregnant. Pregnant ladies who have Zika side effects anytime amid their pregnancy ought to be tried for Zika.

Once a man has been tainted, researchers trust they are most likely shielded from future contaminations.

Is Zika Similar to Other Mosquito-Borne Illnesses, Such as Dengue Fever, Chikungunya, or West Nile Virus?

All can cause an assortment of influenza like side effects that range in seriousness and can last from a couple of days to over seven days. Similarly as with Zika, few individuals contaminated with dengue or West Nile will demonstrate any side effects. While a similar kind of mosquitoes that spread Zika additionally spread dengue and chikungunya, various sorts of mosquitoes spread the West Nile infection.

Zika is likewise the just a single of those infections known to be spread through sexual contact.

How Is Zika Treated?

There’s no treatment, yet Adalja says the vast majority with side effects do well with over-the-counter prescriptions for a throbbing painfulness. The infection ordinarily runs its course inside a week or somewhere in the vicinity.

The CDC suggests contaminated individuals get a lot of rest, drink liquids to avoid drying out, and take acetaminophen for fever and agony. Headache medicine or other nonsteroidal mitigating drugs (NSAIDs) ought not be taken until the point that dengue is precluded, to lessen draining danger, the organization says.

There is no antibody against Zika, yet the National Institutes of Health is trying one in people.

What Is the Connection Between Zika, Microcephaly, and Pregnancy?

Zika makes microcephaly in babies conceived contaminated pregnant ladies, the CDC affirmed for the current year. Microcephaly stunts an infant’s head development, causing decimating, in some cases deadly cerebrum harm, and it can bring about unnatural birth cycle or stillbirth.

The infection has caused freeze in Brazil since it initially showed up there in May 2015. In excess of 2,100 children in Brazil have been conceived with microcephaly or other birth abandons connected to Zika. Brazil and a few different countries have exhorted ladies to defer pregnancy.

Despite the fact that there are numerous reasons for microcephaly in babies, including contaminations amid pregnancy, hereditary issues, and introduction to poisonous substances amid pregnancy, the CDC says look into has sufficiently given proof to demonstrate that Zika is among those causes. Research has proposed that contamination amid the most punctual phases of pregnancy, when a child’s organs are as yet framing, is by all accounts connected to the most noticeably awful results.

In any case, a few investigations are demonstrating that hatchlings can be hurt by contamination later in pregnancy, also, confirm is developing that microcephaly isn’t the main birth imperfection connected to Zika. In a November report, the CDC portrays five kinds of birth absconds, including extreme microcephaly, that are novel to Zika or infrequently happen with different diseases in pregnant ladies. They are:

  • Decreased mind tissue with calcium stores demonstrating cerebrum harm
  • Damage to the back of the eye
  • Limited scope of movement in joints, for example, clubfoot
  • Too much muscle tone, which limits development

Those impacts in babies are called innate Zika disorder.

As of Feb. 21, the CDC had affirmed Zika contaminations in excess of 1,500 pregnant ladies in the U.S. furthermore, in excess of 3,200 pregnant ladies in U.S. domains. Forty-seven U.S. babies have been conceived with Zika-connected birth deformities, and five pregnancy misfortunes have been connected to the infection. In May 2016, the organization set up registries in the U.S., including Puerto Rico, to track pregnant ladies tainted with Zika.

The organization exhorts that ladies and men who have lived or gone in zones with Zika contaminations and have a pregnant sex accomplice either utilize condoms or keep away from sex amid the pregnancy. Individuals who live in South Florida or close Brownsville, TX, or must go there ought to shield themselves from mosquito chomps, the CDC says.

Every pregnant lady in the U.S. ought to be assessed for conceivable Zika checkup amid each pre-birth visit, the CDC says, and every pregnant lady with conceivable introduction ought to be offered Zika testing.

The incubation period of Zika virus disease is not clear, but these symptoms can normally last for 3-7 days. But on the counterpart, if you take certain precautions right in the beginning, then the case of Zika can surely be avoided.

Treating IBS Naturally With Visceral Manipulation

Irritable Bowel Syndrome affects approximately 11% of the population. Only 30% of those suffering from irritable bowel syndrome will consult a physician about their symptoms, which leaves you to wonder how many people out there suffer from this condition undiagnosed. The average IBS sufferer experiences up to 4 distinct episodes of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms lasting up to 5 days. That’s 20 days a month! Those with irritable bowel syndrome have a higher prevalence of anxiety and a lower quality of life.

Common IBS Symptoms:

  • Alternating constipation and/or diarrhea
  • Persistent upper and lower abdominal pain and cramps
  • Feeling very full (or bloated)
  • Gas
  • Mucous discharge in the stools

Irritable bowel syndrome can take some time to nail down the exact triggers and time to heal. Symptoms and healing from IBS can be greatly helped with a manual therapy called Visceral Manipulation. Visceral Manipulation is a very gentle, very specific manual therapy for your internal organs to support optimal motion. That’s right, your lungs and heart are not the only organs that have a rhythmic motion.

When an organ is chronically inflamed, much like with irritable bowel syndrome, that organ tends to develop spasms within the muscle wall affecting its function. The small intestine is on average 20 feet long. There is a lot of potential for inflammation, muscle cramping and spasming which all affect the motion and function of this organ. With the primary responsibility of the SI being 90% of digestion and absorption, this is a problem. It has a very extensive vascular supply, predominantly the superior mesenteric artery and vein. These vessels supply nutrition and oxygen to the organ as well as transport nutrients you consume to the other cells in your body.

People with restrictions in the first part of their small intestine experience:

  • Tightness and discomfort in their mid back
  • Tightness and discomfort near right middle rib region
  • Deep, pinpoint midline abdominal discomfort
  • Difficulty digesting fatty foods
  • General digestive disturbances around 30 minutes to an hour after eating

The first section of the small intestine is called the duodenum and is the shortest section. The duodenum is centrally located just below the rib cage. It is the most fixed portion of the small intestine and is suspended in the abdomen by a ligament that attaches to the diaphragm. This allows for the intestines to elevate and lower with breathing. This portion of the small intestine is a little more muscular than the rest of the small intestine, similar to the musculature stomach. This is also where the common bile duct connects to the small intestine via the Sphincter of Oddi. The common bile duct is where the pancreas and gallbladder dump bile and enzymes to chemically break down your food. The duodenum can become spasmed around the Sphincter of Oddi and impede flow of these enzymes.

Symptoms of restriction in the remainder of the small intestine include:

  • Lower abdominal distention
  • Low energy and fatigue (due to impaired absorption of nutrients)
  • Difficulty digesting raw vegetables
  • Acute and chronic low back pain
  • A weak or wobbly feeling in the legs during or after working out (due to interference of circulation to the legs).

The bulk of the small intestine, the jejunum and ileum, fill the majority of the abdominal cavity, and attach to the back side of the abdominal wall. The small intestine has a very extensive blood supply that can greatly impact digestion and absorption when restricted. Chronic spasms, fascial restrictions and fibrosis can alter the natural motion of the small intestine, impeding blood supply and slowing the transit time of your food.

Genetically Modified Mosquitoes: Dropping the Dengue Fever by 91%

The new dreadful disease, Zika Fever strikes with a little headache, little fever, little joint pain and most of the people who have had it, don’t know they have had it. Recently, just a year ago, the outbreak of Zika Virus in Brazil caused a peak of Microcephaly- Children born with a deformed i.e. small size and small brain. It was in the children of the mothers who were infected with the virus. The new England Journal of Medicine published a paper on May 29th, 2016 Entitled “Zika Virus and Birth Defects-Reviewing the Evidence for Causality”.

The Zika virus broke out from a monkey at the Zika forest in Uganda identified by the researchers of the Yellow Fever Research Institute. The first cases were ever reported was in Tanzania, Uganda and that’s how it got spread through West and East Africa then through Equatorial Asia like India, Pakistan, Malaysia and Indonesia but it was just in Mosquitoes and Monkeys. The one of the biggest outbreaks were in the French Region which had 30,000 reported cases in 2013, from there it causes various outbreaks in the islands on the south coast of America. Then, there was an outbreak in the Natal, Brazil which were thought provoked by the people that it was either the 2014 World Cup that brought it or the Canoe Championship races held that year in Brazil.

Now. Let’s leave the fuss about its transmission in Miami and talk about the treatment. You can get Vaccinated but sadly, there is no vaccine discovered till now and maybe there won’t be in the next couple of years. But, viruses like Zika and Dengue are being killed by the insecticidal sprays but they sadly, the bigger amounts of insecticides can have severe reaction and can even kill the person then the infection of the virus. ‘I am a very big fan of Biological Controls and I share that with Rachel Carson, the Author of the Silent Spring” she said. And then because of that she had interest in using the different approach for the treating the viruses like Zika and Dengue.

The Aedes Egypti, the vector for the transmission of the viruses like Zika, Dengue, West Nile, Ancient Plague and many others. It’s the female mosquito which is responsible for this bad work, male doesn’t even have the mouth parts to bite. She bites so she can get a blood to feed her off springs. A British company called OXITECH modified the mosquito in such a way that the female eggs don’t develop to adulthood.

The scientists added a gene in the genome of the mosquito which encodes a protein which feedbacks on itself so it can crack a lot of protein, making the extra copies and where ever they go, kill the organism and now to keep it running, they added tetracycline which shuts down that gene for the promotion of its normal growth. They added another gene which glows under the UV light and they can monitor where it goes? how far it goes? How much time he lives? Now, the male Friendly Aedes was released around in the city of Piracicaba, Brazil by the mayor himself. They were guided by the GPS and the most inspiring thing, just in one year, they brought down the cases of Dengue by 91 percent. Something Impressive? Right.

They are not even being released in the U.S because of the regulation for the Genetically Modified Organism. Some may even call them the “Animal Drugs” but to be fair the results were better than insecticide or any other vaccine treatment. Now, the only reason I picked this was why not in Pakistan? Maybe, no one even heard of this Friendly Aedes. Guess what? We need it more than any other country because of the reported cases of Dengue fever emerging every year or the other viral infections caused. But, the truth is maybe, even in a decade, it won’t happen or maybe it could. Who knows?